HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language for creating webpages. Webpages are usually viewed in a web browser. They can include writing, links, pictures, and even sound and video.
The W3C is making a new version of HTML, called HTML5, with more features and better support for things like online video. HTML5 is expected to bec ome the standard version of HTML within the next few years.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language.
CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of presentation and content, including aspects such as the layout, colors, and fonts.
Changes to the graphic design of a document (or hundreds of documents) can be applied quickly and easily, by editing a few lines in the CSS file they use, rather than by changing markup in the documents.


JavaScript is most commonly used as a client side scripting language. This means that JavaScript code is written into an HTML page. When a user requests an HTML page with JavaScript in it, the script is sent to the browser and it's up to the browser to do something with it


Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to describe data. The XML standard is a flexible way to create information formats and electronically share structured data via the public Internet, as well as via corporate networks.


When exchanging data between a browser and a server, the data can only be text. JSON is text, and we can convert any JavaScript object into JSON, and send JSON to the server. We can also convert any JSON received from the server into JavaScript objects.


Ajax is a client-side script that communicates to and from a server/database without the need for a postback or a complete page refresh. The best definition I've read for Ajax is "the method of exchanging data with a server, and updating parts of a web page - without reloading the entire page."


jQuery is a lightweight, "write less, do more", JavaScript library. The purpose of jQuery is to make it much easier to use JavaScript on your website. jQuery takes a lot of common tasks that require many lines of JavaScript code to accomplish, and wraps them into methods that you can call with a single line of code.
jQuery also simplifies a lot of the complicated things from JavaScript, like AJAX calls and DOM manipulation.

jQuery Mobile

jQuery Mobile is a cross platform mobile framework designed to simplify and enhance the development of mobile web applications by integrating HTML5, CSS3, jQuery and jQuery UI into one framework that is not only robust, but maintainable and organized.


Bootstrap (front-end framework) Bootstrap is a free and open-source front-end web framework for designing websites and web applications. It contains HTML- and CSS-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation and other interface components, as well as optional JavaScript extensions.


AngularJS is a structural framework for dynamic web apps. It lets you use HTML as your template language and lets you extend HTML's syntax to express your application's components clearly and succinctly.

Node Js

Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform JavaScript run-time environment for executing JavaScript code server-side.
Node.js is a platform built on Chrome's JavaScript runtime for easily building fast and scalable network applications. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.


Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. There are lots of applications and websites that will not work unless you have Java installed, and more are created every day. Java is fast, secure, and reliable. From laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java is everywhere!


PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a widely-used open source general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.
What distinguishes PHP from something like client-side JavaScript is that the code is executed on the server, generating HTML which is then sent to the client. The client would receive the results of running that script, but would not know what the underlying code was. You can even configure your web server to process all your HTML files with PHP, and then there's really no way that users can tell what you have up your sleeve.


MySQL is the world's most popular open source database. With its proven performance, reliability and ease-of-use, MySQL has become the leading database choice for web-based applications, used by high profile web properties including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Yahoo! and many more.


Apache Struts2 is an open-source web application framework for developing Java EE web applications. It uses and extends the Java Servlet API to encourage developers to adopt a model-view-controller (MVC) architecture.


Hibernate ORM (Hibernate in short) is an object-relational mapping tool for the Java programming language. It provides a framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a relational database. Hibernate also provides data query and retrieval facilities